QBank Fortnightly Newsletter (Vol: 1, Issue: 7)
Updates from Robbins latest edition, COVID-19 updates by MOHFW and FDA approval
In our 7th issue, we bring you, yet again, a plethora of interesting updates and updated MCQs from the world of Qbank.
To find the relevant MCQs, copy the MCQ IDs given under each topic and search for them in the Marrow app.
Take a look.
1. Polycythemia Paraganglioma Syndrome
MCQ ID: MD5107
Polycythemia Paraganglioma Syndrome, a catecholamine secreting extra-renal neuroendocrine tumour. It has been added to the list of familial syndromes associated with pheochromocytoma and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
Refernce: Robbins Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 10th e – Table24.11
2. FELUDA for COVID-19
MCQ ID: MD5116
FNCAS9 Editor Linked Uniform Detection Assay (FELUDA) is a highly sensitive and rapid modality based on Tata CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) gene-editing technology.
- The Tata CRISPR test is the world’s first diagnostic test to deploy a specially adapted Cas9 protein to detect the virus causing COVID-19, successfully.
- It achieves accuracy levels of traditional RT-PCR tests with a quicker turn around time, less expensive equipment, and better ease of use.
- It has been recently approved by the Drugs Controller General of India as reported by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Ministry of Science and Technology, to aid diagnosis of SARS-CoV2.
3. Dapagliflozin for heart failure
MCQ ID: MA1870
Dapagliflozin, an SGLT-2 inhibitor, has been approved by the FDA for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction regardless of their diabetic status.
4. Update on MMR in India
MCQ ID: MC4447
According to the special bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India ( 2016-18) released by the Office of the Registrar General’s Sample Registration System (SRS), the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in India has declined to 113 in 2016-18 from 122 in 2015-17 and 130 in 2014-2016.
5. Revised guidelines for home isolation of COVID-19 cases and guidelines for home quarantine of contacts
MCQ IDs: MC4159, MD5109
Home isolation is recommended for very mild cases/ pre-symptomatic cases of COVID-19 for 17 days starting from the onset of symptoms. The patient should not have a fever for the last ten days of home isolation. There is no need for testing after the home isolation period is over.
Eligibility for home isolation:
- A person should be clinically assigned as a very mild case/ pre-symptomatic case.
- Such a person should have the requisite facility at their residence for self-isolation.
- A caregiver should be available round the clock.
- The caregiver and all close contacts of such cases should take Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis.
- Arogya Setu App must be used.
- The patient shall agree to monitor his health and regularly inform his health status to the District Surveillance Officer.
The person should seek immediate medical attention if serious signs or symptoms develop such as:
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Persistent pain/pressure in the chest.
- Mental confusion or inability to arouse.
- Developing bluish discolourations of lips/face.
Home quarantine applies to all contacts of a suspect or confirmed case of COVID-19. The home quarantine period is for 14 days from the day of contact with a confirmed or suspected case. If symptoms appear (cough/fever/difficulty in breathing), he/she should immediately inform the nearest health centre.
A contact in the context of COVID-19 is:
- A person living in the same household as a COVID-19 case.
- A person having had direct physical contact with a COVID-19 case or his/her infectious secretions without recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) or with a possible breach of PPE.
- A person who has a face to face contact with a COVID-19 case or in a closed environment within 1 meter (including air travel)
6. Advisory on strategy for COVID-19 testing in India as recommended by the national task force on COVID-19
MCQ ID: MD5110
- Situations where Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) is recommended as the first line:
- Routine surveillance in containment zones and screening at points of entry
- All symptomatic cases, including health care workers and frontline workers.
- All asymptomatic direct and high-risk contacts such as individuals in family and workplace, age ≥ 65 years, immunocompromised, those with comorbidities of a laboratory-confirmed case to be tested once between day five and day ten of coming into contact.
- All asymptomatic high-risk individuals such as individuals with age ≥ 65 years, comorbidities in containment zones.
- Situations where RT-PCR or TrueNat or CBNAAT is recommended as the first line:
- Routine surveillance in non-containment areas.
- All symptomatic individuals with a history of international travel in the last 14 days.
- All symptomatic contacts of a laboratory-confirmed case.
- All symptomatic health care workers/frontline workers are involved in containment and mitigation activities.
- All patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI).
- Asymptomatic high-risk patients who are hospitalized or seeking immediate hospitalization.
- All pregnant women in/near labour who are hospitalized for delivery.
- All symptomatic neonates presenting with acute respiratory/sepsis-like illness.
- Patients presenting with atypical manifestations.
Algorithm for COVID-19 test interpretation using Rapid Antigen Test