QBank Fortnightly Newsletter Vol: 1, Issue: 8
Please take a look at our 8th issue as we continue to bring more exciting updates that have happened in the world of Qbank.
This time we talk about MCQs that we have revised based on recent census statistics, the latest MoHFW guidelines on TB, and last but not least, the Nobel prize!
To find the relevant MCQs, copy the MCQ IDs given under each topic and search for them in the Marrow app.
1. Management of suspected Tuberculosis in neonates:
MCQ ID: MB5814, MA2050
In accordance with the NTEP (National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme) 2020 guidelines, the newborn whose mother has active tuberculosis and is on ATT, should be ruled out for active TB. Then the neonate should be managed with prophylactic isoniazid (INH) for 6 months, BCG vaccination at birth, with the continuation of breastfeeding.
Points regarding INH prophylaxis:
- After excluding active TB, the neonate should be given INH preventive therapy irrespective of their BCG or nutritional status.
- The dose of INH for preventive therapy is 10 mg/kg body weight administered daily for a minimum period of six months.
- INH tablets should be collected on a monthly basis. During the monthly collections, the child should be closely monitored for TB symptoms to rule out active TB and also assess for any INH-related adverse effects.
- BCG vaccination given at birth with planned INH preventive therapy.
If the mother is suspected of TB at the time of delivery, then, post delivery, the mother’s chest X-ray and sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are taken. If they are suggestive of tuberculosis infection, then the following steps are followed:
- Mother has to be started on ATT.
- Do not separate the baby from the mother.
- Do not withhold breastfeeding.
- Screening of household contacts.
- Screen the neonate for congenital/active TB.
2. Birth Rate, Death Rate, and Infant Mortality Rate:
Sample Registration System (SRS) bulletin of May 2020 with the reference year 2018, released by the Office of the Registrar General presents the estimates of Birth Rate, Death Rate, Natural Growth Rate, and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) for the year 2018 for India and its States/UTs.
- Birth Rate:
MCQ ID: MB8162,MC3612. Pearl ID: 2224, 1709
The birth rate at all India levels has declined from 22.5 in 2009 to 20.0 in 2018. The birth rate for India varies from 16.7 in urban regions to 21.6 in rural regions. The highest birth rate has been recorded in Bihar (26.2) while the lowest in Andaman & Nicobar Islands (11.2).
- Death Rate:
MCQ ID: MA3702,MC3612. Pearl ID: 2224, 214
The death rate in India has witnessed a decline from 7.3 In 2009 to 6.2 in 2018. For the year 2018, the death rate for India varies from 5.1 in urban areas to 6.7 in rural areas. The death rate for the States/Union Territories ranges from 3.3 in Delhi to 8.0 in Chhattisgarh for 2018.
- Infant Mortality Rate:
MCQ ID: MC7613,MC3612, MC3608. Pearl ID: 2224
The infant mortality rate in India has witnessed a significant decline from 50 in 2009 to 32 in 2018. Among the States/Union Territories, the IMR ranges from 4 in Nagaland to 48 in Madhya Pradesh for 2018.
3. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2020:
MCQ ID: MD5117
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020 was awarded jointly to Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton, and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus.“