Top 10 Marrow Updates for NEET PG 2022
The NEET PG 2022 is almost here. It’s time to look back on the Top 10 Marrow updates of 2021. These are some of the most important, exam-relevant updates for the upcoming NEET PG exam. To see the complete list of recent updates from 2021 and 2022, click here or check out the Recent Updates section on your Marrow app.
1 Translocases: The 7th enzyme class
Earlier, there were only six enzyme classes.
The enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across membranes or their separation within membranes have now been classified under a new enzyme class of Translocases (EC 7).
Updated MCQs: MB0798, MB0799. Pearl: 2426
2. National Leprosy Eradication Program 2020: Indicators
- Annual case detection rate/lakh population.
- Rate of new cases with Grade II disabilities/10lakh population/year
- Treatment completion rate as a proxy to cure rate.
- Prevalence rate.
- The proportion of Grade II disabilities among new cases.
- The proportion of females among new cases.
- The proportion of MB among new cases.
- The proportion of child (0- 14 years) among new cases.
- Child rate per 100,000 population.
- Scheduled caste New Case Detection Rate.
Quality of service indicators:
- Patient month Blister calendar pack stock.
- An absolute number of patients made RFT.
- A number of relapses were reported.
- The proportion of cases who developed new or additional disability after starting MDT.
- The proportion of treatment defaulters.
- The proportion of new cases correctly diagnosed.
MCQ ID: MD7238, MD7239
3. Guideline for Tuberculosis Preventive Treatment
According to the latest guidelines by NTEP, TB preventive treatment (TPT) is given to the following groups of people.
i. Rule out active TB and provide TPT, in,
- People living with HIV
- Household contacts of drug-sensitive pulmonary TB patients < 5 years
ii. Rule out active TB and provide TPT only if TB infection test is positive but chest X-ray is normal, in,
- Household contacts of drug-sensitive pulmonary TB patients ≥ 5 years.
Other risk groups:
- Children/adults on immunosuppressive therapy
- Anti-TNF treatment
- Patients on Dialysis/ who underwent Transplantation
iii. To provide TPT after completion of TB treatment, In children/adults living with HIV who successfully completed TB treatment
Any of the two available regimens can be provided:
- 6 months daily Isoniazid
- 3 months weekly Isoniazid + Rifapentine (only used when age > 2 years)
- Active TB/ hepatitis
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Regular alcohol consumption
MCQ ID: MC4992
4. SUMAN (Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan)
It is an initiative for “zero preventable maternal and newborn death”.
- Provide assured, dignified, respectful, & quality healthcare at no cost.
- Zero tolerance for denial of services for every woman and newborn visiting the public health facility.
- To end all preventable maternal and newborn deaths to provide a positive birthing experience.
- All pregnant women.
- All mothers up to 6 months post-delivery.
- All sick infants.
Initiatives: (provided free of cost)
- Ambulance services.
- Minimum 4 antenatal check-ups.
- Normal delivery or C-section delivery.
- Medicines, lab tests for mother & baby up to 1 year.
- Grievance redressal mechanism.
MCQ ID: MC4735
5. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill, 2020
The Rajya Sabha has passed the MTP (Amendment) Bill, 2020 that increases the time period within which an abortion may be carried out.
- Allows abortion to be done on the advice of one doctor up to 20 weeks, and two doctors in the case of certain categories of women (survivors of rape, victims of incest, differently-abled women, minors etc.) between 20 and 24 weeks.
- The Bill sets up state-level medical boards to decide if pregnancy may be terminated after 24 weeks in cases of substantial foetal abnormalities.
MCQ ID: MA1063, MD2354. Pearl ID: 2131
6. Pathology- Robbins 10th edition
i. Familial breast cancer
Single gene mutations associated with familial breast cancer can be categorized into:
- High penetrance germline mutations – BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, PTEN, STK11, CDH I, PALPB2.
- Moderate penetrance germline mutations – ATM, CHEK2.
MCQ ID: MA5688
ii. Endometrial carcinoma:
Recently, genomic sequencing of endometrial carcinoma has revealed four major molecular subtypes of endometrioid and serous carcinomas.
- Ultramutated/POLE tumours – mutations in DNA polymerase ε.
- Hypermutated/MSI (microsatellite instability) tumours – mutations in/ epigenetic silencing of mismatch repair genes.
- Copy number low/MSS (microsatellite stable) tumours – mutations that upregulate signalling through the PI3K/AKT pathway.
- Copy number high/serous-like tumors – TP53 mutations & numerous genomic copy number variants.
MCQ ID: MA6197
iii. Pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma
As per the latest edition, the pathogenesis of Kaposi sarcoma that is caused by HHV8 includes:
- A virally encoded G protein that induces VEGF production, stimulating endothelial growth.
- The lytic infection caused by HHV8 increases pro-inflammatory cytokines.
- HHV8 encoded proteins inhibit the p53 induced apoptosis.
MCQ ID: MB8254
7. Inflammatory markers in COVID-19
Current evidence shows that higher levels of peripheral blood inflammatory markers reflect the intensity of inflammation and the associated with the severity of COVID-19.
- Neutrophil: Lymphocyte ratio
- High-sensitivity C-reactive protein
- IL-6 & IL-10
- Lower Lymphocyte: Monocyte ratio
A positive correlation has been found between an increase in IL-6 levels and the risk of mortality.
MCQ ID: MD7459
8. WHO clinical case definition of post-Covid-19 condition
WHO published the clinical case definition for post-Covid-19 condition.
It states ‘Post Covid-19 condition occurs in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection, usually 3 months from the onset of Covid-19, with symptoms that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Symptoms may be new-onset following initial recovery from an acute Covid-19 episode or persist from the initial episode.
Common symptoms – fatigue, shortness of breath, & cognitive dysfunction.
MCQ ID: MF1980
9. New COVID-19 vaccination rules recommended by NEGVAC
NEGVAC guidelines for the administration of the COVID-19 vaccine, accepted by the MoHFW:
- Vaccination to be deferred by 3 months after recovery by individuals with lab proven positive COVID-19 illness.
- If infected with COVID after the 1st dose of vaccine, 2nd dose is to be deferred by 3 months after clinical recovery.
- A gap of 4-8 weeks is recommended before taking the vaccine, for patients with other serious illnesses requiring hospitalization/ICU care.
- Blood donation can be done after 14 days of either receiving the COVID-19 vaccine or testing RT-PCR negative if suffering from COVID-19 disease.
- Screening by rapid antigen test prior to vaccination is not required.
- Vaccination is recommended for all lactating women.
MCQ ID: MD6851
10. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children & adolescents associated with COVID-19
The diagnostic criteria and management guidelines for MIS-C by MoHFW
Children & adolescents 0–18 years of age with fever ≥ 3 days with evidence of COVID-19, or contact with COVID-19 patients & no other obvious microbial cause of inflammation
AND two of these:
- Rash or bilateral non-purulent conjunctivitis or mucocutaneous inflammation signs
- Hypotension or shock
- Features of myocardial dysfunction, pericarditis, valvulitis, or coronary abnormalities
- Evidence of coagulopathy
- Acute gastrointestinal problems
- Elevated ESR or C-reactive protein, or procalcitonin
MCQ ID: MD7149
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